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Chapter 5
Control Statements

Programming language uses control statements to cause the flow of execution to advance and branch based on changes to the state of a program. Java’s Control statements can be classified in two categories.

Control Statements
Selection
Iteration
if( ) 

else 

While()
switch( )

case

Do 

While();

For( ; ; )

 

if

If statement can be used route program execution through two different paths.

if ( condition ) statement1;
 

else statement2;
 
 

The if works like this: If the condition is true, then statement1 is executed. Otherwise statement2 (if it exists) is executed. In no case will both statements be executed.
 
class example1 {

public static void main ( String args[ ] ) {
int a = 20;
int b = 30;

if ( a < b ) 
System.out.println("a is greater than b");
else
System.out.println("b is greater than a");
}
}


 

since ( a > b ) is false.

Comparison operators returns boolean values (true/false) which decides what statement is to be executed. One can also put boolean variables in condition for direct comparisons.
 
class example2 {
public static void main ( String args[ ] ) {
boolean ans = true;

if ( ans ) 
System.out.println("ans is true");

else
System.out.println("ans is false");
}
}


 

above program displays ans is true.
 
 

Nested if
 
class example3 {
public static void main(String args[ ] ) {
x = 20;
if ( x > 7 ) 
System.out.println( " x is greater than 7 ");
else 

if ( x < 7 ) 
System.out.println(" x is less than 7 ");

else
System.out.println(" x is equals to 7 ");
}
}


 
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